Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that may cause hemorrhagic fevers. These are marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many cases, death. Both viruses are native to Africa, where sporadic outbreaks have occurred for decades.
Ebola virus and Marburg virus live in animal hosts. Humans can get the viruses from infected animals. After the initial transmission, the viruses can spread from person to person through contact with body fluids or unclean items such as infected needles.
No drug has been approved to treat Ebola virus or Marburg virus. People diagnosed with Ebola virus or Marburg virus receive supportive care and treatment for complications. One vaccine has been approved for Ebola virus. Scientists are studying other vaccines for these deadly diseases.
Signs and symptoms typically begin abruptly within five to 10 days of infection with Ebola virus or Marburg virus. Early signs and symptoms include:
Over time, symptoms become increasingly severe and may include:
Ebola virus has been found in African monkeys, chimps and other nonhuman primates. A milder strain of Ebola has been discovered in monkeys and pigs in the Philippines.
Marburg virus has been found in monkeys, chimps and fruit bats in Africa.
Experts suspect that both viruses spread to humans through an infected animal's bodily fluids. Examples include:
People who have Ebola virus or Marburg virus typically don't become contagious until they develop symptoms. The viruses can spread through blood, body fluids, or contaminated items such as bedding, clothing or needles. Family members can be infected as they care for sick relatives or prepare the dead for burial.
Medical personnel can be infected if they don't use specialized personal protective equipment that covers them from head to toe.
There's no evidence that Ebola virus or Marburg virus can be spread via insect bites.
For most people, the risk of getting Ebola virus or Marburg virus is low. The risk increases if you:
Both Ebola virus and Marburg virus lead to death for a high number of people who are affected. As the illnesses progress, the viruses can cause:
One reason the viruses are so deadly is that they interfere with the immune system's ability to mount a defense. But scientists don't understand why some people recover from Ebola virus and Marburg virus and others don't.
For people who survive, recovery is slow. It may take months to regain weight and strength, and the viruses remain in the body for weeks. People may experience:
Prevention focuses on avoiding contact with the viruses. The following precautions can help prevent infection and spread of Ebola virus and Marburg virus.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved an Ebola vaccine. It's given as a single dose and has been found to be effective and safe to use.
Another Ebola vaccine has been developed and used in the Democratic Republic of Congo in a research study. It requires two doses, taken 56 days apart.
Scientists continue to work on a variety of vaccines that would protect people from Ebola virus and Marburg virus. Research is ongoing.
Ebola virus and Marburg virus are difficult to diagnose because early signs and symptoms resemble those of other diseases, such as typhoid and malaria. If doctors suspect that you have Ebola virus or Marburg virus, they use blood tests to quickly identify the virus, including:
No antiviral medications have proved effective in treating infection with either Ebola virus or Marburg virus. Supportive hospital care includes:
The possibility of getting Ebola virus or Marburg virus is extremely low unless you've had direct contact with the body fluids of a person or an animal infected with one of the viruses.
If you think that you or a family member may have been exposed to one of the viruses, call your doctor or go to the nearest emergency room immediately. If you're not referred to an infectious disease specialist, ask to see one.
If you're from the United States and traveling or working abroad, the nearest U.S. Embassy can help you find a doctor. If you're from another country, contact your country's embassy. Be sure to tell your doctor or hospital about your symptoms before your visit so that precautions can be taken to prevent transmission of the virus to others.
Before your appointment, to help your doctor find the cause of your symptoms, write a list that answers the following questions:
If possible, take a family member or friend with you. Sometimes it can be difficult to remember all the information provided to you in the hospital or during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may remember something you missed or forgot.
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