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Tests & Procedures

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A1C test

Learn more about the preparation for and results of this common diabetes blood test.

ACL reconstruction

Learn about surgery to replace a knee ligament, including what you need to do to prepare for this procedure and what results you can expect.

ANA test

An antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is one test used to help determine if you have an autoimmune disease such as lupus.

AV node ablation

Learn who may benefit from this cardiac catheter procedure to correct persistent atrial fibrillation, or A-fib.

Abdominal hysterectomy

Learn about reasons why a hysterectomy might be done and what to expect if you need to have surgery to remove your uterus.

Abdominal ultrasound

Abdominal ultrasound is the preferred test to screen for an aortic aneurysm. But it may be done for other health reasons, too. Learn why and how it’s done.

Active surveillance for prostate cancer

Learn about why doctors may recommend active surveillance for prostate cancer and what to expect.

Acupuncture

Practitioners use this integrative medicine technique to treat common problems such as back pain, neck pain and joint pain to influence energy flow.

Allergy shots

Allergy shots (immunotherapy) offer long-term relief from allergy symptoms. However, the treatment takes as long as three to five years to be effective.

Allergy skin tests

Considering skin testing for your allergies? Learn about the risks, results and what to expect during testing.

Allogeneic stem cell transplant

Learn about this type of bone marrow transplant using stem cells from donor blood, bone marrow or umbilical cord blood.

Amniocentesis

Find out about this prenatal test that checks the fluid surrounding your baby during pregnancy.

Ankle-brachial index

Find out more about this test for peripheral artery disease.

Annuloplasty

If you have a leaky heart valve, this procedure to repair a ring around the valve may be recommended. Learn when and how it's done.

Aortic root surgery

Learn more about this complex heart surgery done where the body's main artery (aorta) meets the heart.

Aortic valve repair and aortic valve replacement

Find out how valve repair and replacement can treat aortic valve stenosis, aortic valve regurgitation and congenital heart disease.

Arm lift

Know what to expect during an arm lift and the possible risks.

Arthroscopy

Learn more about this procedure that uses a slim fiber-optic camera to diagnose and treat joint problems.

Atrial fibrillation ablation

Learn how hot or cold energy can treat irregular and chaotic heartbeats, also known as atrial fibrillation (A-fib).

Atrial flutter ablation

Learn how heart specialists use this type of cardiac ablation to treat atrial flutter.

Auditory brainstem implant

Learn more about what an auditory brainstem implant is, how it works and how it may be right for you.

Autologous stem cell transplant

This type of bone marrow transplant uses your own blood stem cells to treat blood disorders and cancers.

Awake brain surgery

Awake brain surgery is performed while you are awake and alert. This type of brain surgery may be used to treat some brain tumors or epileptic seizures.

BRCA gene test for breast and ovarian cancer risk

Find out what to expect if you're considering a blood test to determine if you have an increased risk of breast cancer. Learn what your results might mean.

Bariatric surgery

Bariatric surgery can be a helpful weight loss tool — but it's not for everyone. Learn about available procedures and the risks and results of surgery.

Barium enema

Find out how to prepare and what to expect if your doctor has recommended a barium enema.

Basal body temperature for natural family planning

Learn the steps for tracking body temperature for pregnancy or contraception. Find out when during your menstrual cycle you're more likely to be fertile.

Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS)

Learn about a two-part weight-loss procedure that involves making the stomach smaller and reconnecting parts of the small intestine

Bilirubin test

Find out what to expect from a bilirubin test — an important blood test that determines how your liver is functioning.

Biofeedback

Biofeedback is a technique you can use to learn to control your body's responses, such as your heart rate. It can be helpful for a variety of health problems.

Birth control patch

Learn how to use this type of birth control that delivers estrogen and progestin through a patch you wear on your skin to prevent pregnancy.

Bladder removal surgery (cystectomy)

Learn about innovative approaches to surgically remove the bladder and reconstruct an alternate urinary system.

Blepharoplasty

Learn what's involved and the risks, as well as what kind of results you can expect from this eyelid surgery.

Blood and bone marrow stem cell donation

Learn what these donations involve and what the risks are.

Blood donation

Find out what to expect during blood donation and how your blood will be used to help others.

Blood pressure test

Learn how this simple test is done, how often you need one and what the results mean.

Blood transfusion

A blood transfusion can help replace blood lost due to surgery or injury. It also can help if an illness prevents your body from making blood correctly.

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test

Learn about the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test to assess kidney function and what possible results could mean.

Bone density test

If your doctor suspects you have osteoporosis, a bone density test can assess your bone strength. Learn about the risks and results of this procedure.

Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration

Learn what to expect with these tests, which are done to make sure your bone marrow is healthy.

Bone marrow transplant

Learn about this procedure that replaces unhealthy bone marrow with stem cells. Your own cells, donor cells or cells from umbilical cord blood may be used.

Bone scan

This diagnostic test can be used to check for cancer that has spread to the bones, unexplained skeletal pain, bone infection or a bone injury.

Botox injections

Learn about the uses, risks and results of this procedure for facial rejuvenation and to treat medical conditions.

Brachytherapy

During brachytherapy cancer treatment, radioactive material is placed inside your body. Find out how brachytherapy is done and who it's for.

Brain stereotactic radiosurgery

This procedure delivers precise radiation therapy to treat brain tumors and other brain abnormalities.

Breast MRI

Learn more about breast MRI, including how this imaging test helps to diagnose cancer and when you might need one.

Breast augmentation

Find out about surgery to increase breast size, as well as the risks, benefits, possible complications and follow-up care.

Breast biopsy

Learn about this test that's used to diagnose breast cancer, including why it's done, risks and what to expect.

Breast cancer supportive therapy and survivorship

Learn about the services available to help you feel better during and after breast cancer treatment.

Breast cancer surgery

Learn about the types of operations used to treat breast cancer, including lumpectomy, mastectomy, lymph node surgery and breast reconstruction.

Breast lift

Learn more about this procedure that reshapes and raises the breasts.

Breast reconstruction with flap surgery

Find out what to expect if you're considering breast reconstruction. Learn about the options, incuding TRAM, DIEP and latissimus dorsi flap procedures.

Breast reconstruction with implants

Find out what to expect if you're considering breast reconstruction with breast implants after mastectomy. Includes pre-pectoral implant placement.

Breast reduction surgery

Find out more about this surgery to remove excess fat, tissue and skin from the breasts.

Breast self-exam for breast awareness

Being aware of the normal consistency of your breasts may make it more likely that you'll notice any changes that could be signs of breast cancer.

Bronchoscopy

A doctor inserts a small, flexible tube through your mouth or nose into your lungs to look at your air passages and find the cause of a lung problem.

Brow lift

Find out about this surgery to improve the appearance of the forehead and brow, including the possible risks.

Buttock lift

Understand how a buttock lift can change your appearance and the possible risks.

C-reactive protein test

This simple blood test measures inflammation in your body. Know how results help diagnose infection and, sometimes, predict the risk of heart attack.

C-section

Learn the reasons this surgical procedure to deliver a baby is done, the risks and tips for recovery.

CA 125 test

Learn how doctors use this blood test to measure levels of a tumor marker associated with ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and other types of cancer.

COVID-19 antibody testing

Learn how COVID-19 antibody testing is done to find out if you've had a past infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019.

COVID-19 diagnostic testing

Find out how COVID-19 diagnostic testing is done to learn if you're currently infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019.

CT coronary angiogram

Learn about the risks and results of this imaging test that looks at the arteries that supply blood to your heart.

CT scan

This imaging test helps detect internal injuries and disease by providing cross-sectional images of bones, blood vessels and soft tissues inside your body.

Canalith repositioning procedure

Here's what to expect from the canalith repositioning procedure, a series of simple, effective maneuvers to help relieve a certain type of vertigo.

Cancer treatment

Cancer treatments, including surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy, are often combined to cure or control various cancers.

Capsule endoscopy

Capsule endoscopy involves swallowing a tiny capsule with a camera inside to get a view of the inside of your digestive tract. Find out what to expect.

Cardiac ablation

Hot or cold energy applied to the heart can correct rapid or erratic heartbeats (arrhythmias). Know when you might need this treatment and the risks.

Cardiac catheterization

Find out more about this minimally invasive procedure that can diagnose and treat heart problems, including what's involved in the test and the risks.

Cardiac rehabilitation

Learn more about this customized program to improve your heart health through exercise, education and support.

Cardiac resynchronization therapy

A treatment for heart failure, this procedure uses a pacemaker or a pacemaker with a defibrillator.

Cardioversion

Learn what to expect during this procedure to reset the heart's rhythm.

Carotid angioplasty and stenting

This procedure opens a clogged artery to restore blood flow to the brain — and saves you from a stroke.

Carotid endarterectomy

This procedure removes plaque buildup in the carotid artery to help reduce your risk of stroke.

Carotid ultrasound

A carotid ultrasound examines the blood flow through the arteries in your neck that deliver blood from your heart to your brain.

Cataract surgery

Cataract surgery — Overview covers risks, complications, results of this eye surgery.

Cervical mucus method for natural family planning

Normal vaginal discharge can give you clues about your fertility. Learn how to track changes in cervical mucus to predict when you may be more likely to get pregnant.

Chemical peel

Learn about your options and what to expect with this skin-resurfacing procedure that removes layers of your skin with a chemical solution.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy drugs are used to treat many types of cancer. Learn why it's done, side effects and what to expect during chemotherapy treatment.

Chemotherapy for breast cancer

Learn how doctors use this drug treatment to kill rapidly growing breast cancer cells. Find out about chemotherapy side effects and what you can expect.

Chest X-rays

Learn what these chest images can show your doctor and what conditions they may uncover.

Chiropractic adjustment

Chiropractors apply a controlled, sudden force to individual spinal joints to improve mobility and relieve discomfort.

Cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal)

Does your gallbladder need to come out? Find out what happens during a cholecystectomy — a common surgical procedure to remove your gallbladder.

Cholesterol test

Measuring the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood can help predict your risk of blocked arteries in your heart and brain.

Chorionic villus sampling

Find out about this prenatal test that can uncover chromosomal and other genetic conditions early in pregnancy.

Circumcision (male)

Circumcision — the surgical removal of the skin covering the tip of the penis — can be a religious ritual, a family tradition or a matter of personal hygiene.

Cochlear implants

A cochlear implant is an electronic device that improves hearing in people who have severe hearing loss due to damage of the inner ear.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

Becoming aware of inaccurate or negative thinking can help you view challenging situations more clearly and respond to them in a more effective way.

Colectomy

If you're having colon surgery, learn what to expect, the risks and how to prepare.

Colonoscopy

Colonoscopy is one option for colon cancer screening. Find out what to expect during this procedure to examine the inside of your colon.

Colposcopy

Find out why colposcopy is done and what to expect during an exam to diagnose cancer and other problems affecting the cervix, vagina and vulva.

Combination birth control pills

Combination birth control pills, oral contraceptives that contain estrogen and progestin, keep you from ovulating.

Complete blood count (CBC)

Complete blood count (CBC) — Overview covers definition, preparation, results of this common blood test.

Computerized tomography (CT) urogram

Learn more about this imaging exam used to diagnose urinary tract disorders.

Concussion testing

These tests help measure brain function after head trauma and help athletes at risk for head injuries.

Contraceptive implant

Learn about the benefits, risks and effectiveness of this type of long-acting, reversible birth control.

Convalescent plasma therapy

Convalescent plasma therapy uses blood from people who've recovered from an illness to help others recover. It's being tried as a treatment for COVID-19.

Copper IUD (ParaGard)

A copper intrauterine device offers a hormone-free option for long-acting, reversible birth control.

Cordocentesis

Find out how this prenatal test uses umbilical cord blood to check for genetic disorders and infections.

Cornea transplant

Cornea transplant uses donor tissue to restore your vision and reduce pain from cornea disease. Our overview helps you see the risks and benefits clearly.

Coronary angiogram

Learn more about this heart disease test that uses X-ray imaging to see your heart’s blood vessels.

Coronary angioplasty and stents

Coronary angioplasty and stents can open clogged arteries and improve blood flow to the heart.

Coronary bypass surgery

Learn about this surgery that creates a new pathway to the heart, allowing better blood flow to the heart muscle and easing chest pain.

Cortisone shots

These shots can help relieve pain and inflammation. Potential side effects generally limit the number of cortisone shots you can receive in one year.

Cosmetic surgery

Cosmetic surgery's goal is to improve your appearance. Cosmetic surgery can involve dramatic changes, so it's important to understand what it involves.

Creatinine tests

Learn more about blood and urine tests used to measure kidney function.

Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

Find out how very cold temperatures are used to freeze tissue and treat prostate cancer. Learn about the side effects and potential benefits of cryotherapy.

Cystoscopy

During cystoscopy, your doctor examines the inside of your bladder using a special instrument that's inserted into the bladder through the urethra.

Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) tests

CYP450 tests may help determine how your body metabolizes an antidepressant based on how genes affect your body's response to medication.

Deceased-donor kidney transplant

Deceased-donor kidney transplant — Find out more about this treatment for end-stage kidney disease and what to expect.

Deep brain stimulation

Learn more about how electrical stimulation of the brain can be used to treat a variety of conditions, including epilepsy and Parkinson's disease.

Dental implant surgery

A procedure that replaces tooth roots with metal, screwlike posts, which are topped with artificial teeth, giving you the look and function of real teeth.

Depo-Provera (contraceptive injection)

Depo-Provera, a contraceptive injection that's given every three months, contains the hormone progestin to help protect from unintended pregnancy.

Dermabrasion

Find out how this skin-resurfacing procedure can change the appearance of your skin.

Dilation and curettage (D&C)

Learn what to expect during this procedure, how providers perform it to remove uterine tissue and what to watch out for during recovery.

Discogram

This imaging test helps determine if an abnormal disk in your spine is causing your back pain.

Diskectomy

This surgical procedure removes the damaged portion of a herniated disk in the spine. It's most effective for pain radiating down the arms or legs.

Donor nephrectomy

In this surgical procedure, a healthy kidney is removed from a living donor for transplant into a person whose kidneys no longer function properly.

EEG (electroencephalogram)

Brain cells communicate via electrical impulses, activity an EEG detects. An altered pattern can indicate conditions such as epilepsy.

EP study

An electrophysiology study can show the cause of irregular heart rhythms and guide treatment. Know when it's done and the risks.

Ear tubes

Learn about the procedure for placing ear tubes used to treat middle ear problems.

Echocardiogram

Find out more about this test for imaging your heart.

Egg freezing

For women who want to save their unfertilized eggs for a possible future pregnancy, egg freezing is a method for doing so.

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

This common, painless test can detect heart attacks and heart rhythm problems. Know when and why an ECG is done.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

ECT can provide rapid, significant improvements in people who have severe symptoms of depression, mania, catatonia or other mental health disorders.

Electromyography (EMG)

Electromyography (EMG) is a procedure used to diagnose muscle or nerve dysfunction. Learn what to expect from your EMG.

Endometrial ablation

Endometrial ablation treats abnormal uterine bleeding and other uterine conditions. Learn about the risks and what to expect during the procedure.

Endoscopic mucosal resection

Endoscopic mucosal resection, a procedure to remove abnormal tissue from the lining of the digestive tract, is used for both diagnosis and treatment.

Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty

Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty is a weight-loss procedure done using a flexible tube passed down through the throat — with no external incision.

Endoscopic ultrasound

Learn more about this minimally invasive imaging test combining endoscopy and ultrasound to diagnosis digestive and lung diseases.

Epilepsy surgery

Surgery may provide relief from epileptic seizures when medications aren't working.

Esophageal manometry

This test involves placing a thin, pressure-sensitive tube through your nose into your esophagus to measure pressure as you swallow.

Esophagectomy

Esophagectomy is a procedure that involves removing the tube between your mouth and stomach. Find out what to expect.

External beam radiation for prostate cancer

Learn about the risks and results of this procedure, which is used to deliver radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) helps your heart and lungs function while you recover from serious illness or injury.

Eye exam

Have you scheduled your eye exam? Find out how often you need to have your eyes checked and what to expect from the different types of exams.

Face transplant

Learn about this complex surgery that uses donor tissue to replace all or part of a person's face.

Face-lift

This cosmetic surgery can give your face a younger shape and look. Understand the risks and benefits of this procedure.

Facial feminization surgery

Learn about the procedures that can change facial features to better match gender identity.

Facial fillers for wrinkles

Find out more about facial injections, also called soft tissue fillers, that can temporarily smooth wrinkles.

Family therapy

Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling that can help family members improve communication and resolve conflicts.

Fecal occult blood test

Learn how doctors use fecal occult blood tests (FOBT), such as the fecal immunochemical test (FIT), to screen for colon cancer.

Feminizing hormone therapy

Find out more about this feminizing hormonal treatment to promote the matching of your gender identity and body.

Feminizing surgery

Find out how feminizing surgical procedures can alter your appearance to promote the matching of your body to your gender identity.

Ferritin test

Ferritin is a blood protein that contains iron. A ferritin test shows whether your blood has too much or too little iron.

Fetal fibronectin test

Understand how this prenatal test can be used to rule out preterm labor.

Fetal surgery

This procedure is done on an unborn baby (fetus) in the mother's uterus to improve outcomes of children with certain birth defects, such as spina bifida.

Fetal ultrasound

Fetal ultrasound images can help your doctor evaluate how your pregnancy is progressing.

First trimester screening

Find out about this prenatal test that offers early information about your baby's risk of certain chromosomal conditions.

Flexible sigmoidoscopy

Learn about this alternative to colonoscopy to screen for and detect polyps or cancer in the lower part of the colon.

Forceps delivery

Forceps delivery is sometimes recommended to help guide your baby out of the birth canal during childbirth. Find out what to expect from this procedure.

Gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y)

Gastric bypass is a type of weight-loss surgery that reduces your stomach to the size of a walnut. Learn about its risks and benefits.

Gene therapy

Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds a new gene in an attempt to cure disease or improve your body's ability to fight disease.

General anesthesia

General anesthesia means being put in a sleep-like state during surgery so that you don't feel any pain.

Genetic testing

Genetic testing: Learn why it's done, how to prepare and what to expect from diagnostic tests, carrier tests, prenatal tests and newborn screening.

Glucose challenge test

Know how to prepare for this gestational diabetes screening.

Glucose tolerance test

These simple blood tests are performed to screen for diabetes. Your doctor may recommend one or many of these tests depending on your risk factors.

HIDA scan

Find out what to expect during a HIDA scan — a nuclear imaging procedure used to diagnose liver, gallbladder and bile duct problems.

HPV test

The HPV test can help identify your risk of cervical cancer. Learn more about how to prepare and what your results may mean.

Hand transplant

Find out what's involved in this surgery in which someone with an amputation receives one or two hands from a donor.

Heart scan (coronary calcium scan)

Learn more about this test that can reveal calcium deposits in your blood vessels and know how the findings relate to your heart disease risk.

Heart transplant

Replacing a failing heart with a donor heart is an end-stage treatment for heart disease when other treatments for heart problems haven't worked.

Heart valve surgery

Learn more about surgery to treat heart valve disease, which involves repairing or replacing affected heart valves.

Hematocrit test

Hematocrit test — Comprehensive overview covers results, what to expect from this red blood cell blood test.

Hemodialysis

Learn about hemodialysis and the risks and benefits of this procedure to treat kidney failure.

Hemoglobin test

Hemoglobin test — Overview covers definition, preparation, results of this blood test.

Hip replacement

Hip replacement may be an option if your hip pain interferes with daily activities and nonsurgical treatments haven't helped.

Holter monitor

This wearable device keeps track of the heart's rhythm during daily activities. Learn when you might need one and what to expect.

Home enteral nutrition

Learn how Mayo Clinic specialists help you maintain your feeding tube at home.

Home parenteral nutrition

Learn about home parenteral nutrition treatment at Mayo Clinic and the situations in which this specialized form of food infused through a vein is used.

Hormonal IUD (Mirena)

A progestin-containing intrauterine device — or hormonal IUD — provides long-acting, reversible birth control.

Hormone therapy for breast cancer

Find out how doctors use hormone therapy for breast cancer. Learn about risks and what to expect during this treatment for ER and PR positive breast cancers.

Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

Find out what to expect during hormone therapy for prostate cancer. Learn about your options, including medications and surgery.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a well-known treatment for decompression sickness, but it has many surprising uses. Find out about why and how it's done.

Hypnosis

Find out about this relaxed state, the conditions it can help, and the possible risks.

Ileoanal anastomosis (J-pouch) surgery

Ileoanal anastomosis (J-pouch) surgery removes parts of the large intestine. It's often done to treat bowel conditions that tend to progress to cancer.

Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT)

Learn how doctors use imaging tests during radiation therapy to deliver treatment precisely, increasing effectiveness and reducing side effects.

Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs)

Learn more about this cardiac device that delivers shocks to control dangerous heart rhythms, including who needs an ICD and how it's implanted.

Implantable loop recorder: A heart monitoring device

Learn how this implanted device records your heartbeat and know when you might need one.

In vitro fertilization (IVF)

Learn more about the IVF process and what to expect from this assisted reproductive technology used to treat infertility.

Integrative medicine

Integrative medicine combines complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practices with conventional medicine.

Intragastric balloon

An intragastric balloon is a silicone balloon filled with saline. It's inserted into the stomach to create a feeling of fullness and aid in weight loss.

Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI)

Find out how Mayo Clinic neurosurgeons use intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) during brain surgery.

Intrauterine insemination (IUI)

Learn more about how this infertility treatment is done and what to expect.

Intravenous pyelogram

An intravenous pyelogram is an imaging exam that may be used to help diagnose urinary tract disorders. Learn what to expect during the exam.

Jaw surgery

Jaw surgery corrects irregularities of the jaw bones and realigns the jaws and teeth to improve the way they work and it often improves appearance.

Kidney biopsy

During a kidney biopsy, doctors remove a small piece of kidney tissue to view under a microscope to diagnose kidney problems and guide treatment decisions.

Kidney transplant

Find out about the different types of kidney transplants — surgeries that are done to treat kidney failure.

Knee braces for osteoarthritis

Knee braces for osteoarthritis may help reduce pain by shifting your weight off the most damaged portion of your knee.

Knee osteotomy

If you have arthritis damage in just one area of your knee, osteotomy might buy some time before you need total knee replacement.

Knee replacement

Knee replacement surgery can relieve pain and restore function to a knee joint that's severely damaged, usually by arthritis.

LASIK eye surgery

Learn about this most common type of laser eye surgery to correct vision problems and what to expect before, during and after surgery.

Labor induction

Understand what to expect during this procedure to start labor before it begins on its own.

Laminectomy

Removing the rear part of a vertebra (lamina) creates extra space in the spinal canal and can relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerves.

Laryngotracheal reconstruction

Laryngotracheal reconstruction surgery — Comprehensive overview covers why it's done and what's involved with the procedure.

Larynx and trachea transplant

A larynx or transplant may help people who have severe damage to their throat. It may result in the ability to breathe through the mouth, swallow better and speak.

Laser hair removal

Laser hair removal uses a concentrated beam of light to reduce unwanted hair long term.

Laser resurfacing

Explore your options and learn what to expect from this treatment to improve the appearance of your facial skin.

Liposuction

Learn about this surgical procedure that removes fat and contours certain areas of your body, including risks, what to expect and how to prepare.

Liver biopsy

Examining liver tissue can be a vital step in diagnosing and treating many liver conditions. Find out what to expect from this important procedure.

Liver function tests

Liver function tests can help determine how well your liver is doing its job. Find out what to expect and what results are considered normal.

Liver transplant

Learn what to expect before and after this important treatment option for patients with liver failure.

Living-donor kidney transplant

Living-donor kidney transplant — Find out more about this alternative to deceased-donor kidney transplant and what to expect.

Living-donor liver transplant

Learn about this surgery that uses a portion of a liver from a healthy living donor to replace another person's liver that's not working properly.

Living-donor transplant

This surgery uses a living donor's organ, such as a kidney or portion of a liver, to replace another person's organ that no longer works properly.

Lumbar puncture (spinal tap)

Learn about lumbar puncture, which removes a sample of cerebrospinal fluid to find infections, bleeding and other problems. It is also called spinal tap.

Lumpectomy

Learn what to expect from this breast-conserving surgical procedure.

Lung cancer screening

Doctors recommend lung CT scans to look for signs of lung cancer in current and former heavy smokers. Find out what to expect during lung cancer screening.

Lung transplant

Learn what's involved in this major surgery that replaces a diseased or failing lung with a healthy lung, and what you can expect after the procedure.

Lung volume reduction surgery

Lung volume reduction surgery is a treatment for severe emphysema. Damaged areas are removed, allowing the lung to function better.

MRI

Learn more about how to prepare for this painless diagnostic test that creates detailed pictures of the inside of the body without using radiation.

Magnetic resonance elastography

Magnetic resonance elastography is a newer, noninvasive imaging test used to evaluate the severity of certain liver diseases.

Mammogram

Learn what to expect during a breast X-ray exam. Find out about the benefits of mammograms for breast cancer screening, as well as potential risks.

Masculinizing hormone therapy

Find out more about this masculinizing hormonal treatment to promote the matching of your gender identity and body.

Masculinizing surgery

Find out how masculinizing surgical procedures can alter your appearance to promote the matching of your body to your body gender identity.

Mastectomy

Learn about this operation to remove one or both breasts for breast cancer treatment or breast cancer prevention. Find out what you can expect.

Maze procedure

Find out who may benefit from this procedure to correct a heart rhythm problem.

Medical abortion

Learn what to expect when medicine is used to end a pregnancy, including side effects, risks and possible complications.

Microalbumin test

How healthy are your kidneys? This simple urine test can detect early signs of kidney damage, which could help prevent or delay serious kidney disease.

Minimally invasive heart surgery

Learn more about this surgery that uses small incisions in the chest as an alternative to open-heart surgery.

Minimally invasive surgery

Learn more about laparoscopy or robotic surgical techniques, which may mean less pain and a shorter hospital stay.

Minipill (progestin-only birth control pill)

The minipill is an oral contraceptive that contains only the hormone progestin and no estrogen.

Mitral valve repair and mitral valve replacement

If you have a leaky or stiff mitral valve, you may need heart surgery. Learn about the different procedures used to repair or replace this valve.

Mohs surgery

Learn what to expect during this skin cancer surgery that involves removing thin layers of skin until only cancer-free tissue remains.

Molecular breast imaging

Learn about this breast cancer screening test that's sometimes used in addition to mammograms, especially for those with dense breast tissue.

Morning-after pill

For women who've had unprotected sex or whose birth control method failed, the morning-after pill can help prevent pregnancy.

Myomectomy

This surgical procedure to treat uterine fibroids tries to preserve fertility using a variety of approaches.

Neck lift

Find out how this cosmetic procedure removes excess skin and fat around the jaw line to create a more youthful appearance.

Needle biopsy

Common needle biopsy procedures include fine-needle aspiration and core needle biopsy.

Neobladder reconstruction

Learn about bladder reconstruction to restore urinary function after bladder removal surgery, including how it's done and possible complications.

Nephrectomy (kidney removal)

Complete (radical) nephrectomy is surgery to remove all of a kidney. Kidney-sparing surgery (partial nephrectomy) removes part of a kidney.

Nondirected living-donor transplant

Nondirected living donor — Find out what becoming a good Samaritan (nondirected) living organ donor means to transplantation.

Nonstress test

Understand how this prenatal test uses fetal heart rate monitoring to evaluate your baby's health.

Nuclear stress test

A nuclear stress test creates images showing the blood flow to your heart. Here's how to prepare, and what you can expect.

Oophorectomy (ovary removal surgery)

Oophorectomy — Overview covers what to expect, risks of surgery to remove the ovaries for ovarian cancer, tumors, cysts, abscesses and other conditions.

Oral cancer screening

Learn about the benefits and limitations of tests to detect mouth cancer.

Otoplasty

Learn about this cosmetic procedure, which is done to change the appearance of your ears. Understand risks and what results to expect after surgery.

PSA test

Learn about this prostate cancer screening test, including why it's done, what to expect, risks and results.

Pacemaker

Learn more about this cardiac pacing device that's implanted in your chest to help control the heartbeat.

Palliative care

Palliative care — Learn why it's done and what to expect with this specialized medical care that offers symptom relief for seriously ill people of any age.

Pancreas transplant

Pancreas transplant offers a potential cure for people with serious complications from diabetes. Learn what to expect before and after this procedure.

Pap smear

Pap smear is often recommended for cervical cancer screening. Learn how it's done and what abnormal Pap test results might mean.

Pediatric cervical spine surgery

This surgery can treat injuries or congenital abnormalities in the neck section of the spine.

Pelvic exam

Find out what’s involved in a pelvic exam, why it might be needed and how to prepare.

Penile implants

Explore your choices and learn what to expect from penile implant surgery.

Penis pump

Find out how this noninvasive device can be placed on your penis to create an erection.

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a procedure for removing large kidney stones. Learn how it's done.

Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line

Find out what to expect during and after PICC line insertion. Learn about why it's done and potential PICC line complications.

Peritoneal dialysis

Learn how this treatment option for managing kidney failure may give you more flexibility than traditional dialysis.

Polysomnography (sleep study)

Your doctor may order a sleep study if a sleep disorder such as sleep apnea is suspected. Learn how to prepare and what to expect.

Positron emission tomography scan

Learn how this imaging scan can play an important role in early detection of health problems, such as cancer, heart disease and brain disorders.

Precision medicine for breast cancer

Learn how precision medicine uses genetic testing and drug-gene testing (pharmacogenomics) to diagnose, treat and prevent breast cancer.

Preemptive kidney transplant

Preemptive kidney transplant — Find out more about this alternative to dialysis for treatment of end-stage kidney disease and what to expect.

Prenatal cell-free DNA screening

Find out how prenatal cell-free DNA screening can be used to screen for certain chromosomal abnormalities.

Prostate biopsy

Find out about this procedure that's used to diagnose prostate cancer. Learn about the risks, how to prepare and what you can expect.

Prostate brachytherapy

Learn about this type of radiation therapy for prostate cancer that involves placing radioactive seeds or wires in the prostate gland.

Prostate laser surgery

Understand what to expect and the risks and results of this procedure to treat enlarged prostate.

Prostatectomy

Learn about surgical options and advances in prostatectomy, including robotic surgery, as well as the risks involved with each approach.

Prothrombin time test

This simple test measures how quickly your blood clots. Find out why it's done and what to expect.

Proton therapy

Learn about this newer form of radiation therapy, used to treat cancer and noncancerous tumors, and how it's different from X-ray radiation.

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy — Overview covers definition, risks and results of this mental health treatment.

Pulmonary valve repair and replacement

Congenital heart conditions can cause a leaky or blocked pulmonary valve. Learn the benefits and risks of valve repair and replacement.

Pulmonary vein isolation

This type of cardiac ablation uses heat or cold energy to treat atrial fibrillation. Learn how it's done and when you might need the procedure.

Quad screen

What can a quad screen tell you about your baby? Get the facts.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is a common means of treating many types of cancer. Find out what to expect during your radiation therapy treatment.

Radiation therapy for breast cancer

Find out why doctors use radiation treat breast cancer. Learn what to expect and the side effects of breast cancer radiation, including proton therapy.

Radiofrequency neurotomy

Achy neck, back, knee, shoulder or hip? Radiofrequency neurotomy temporarily quiets nerves that cause pain. Learn more about this targeted treatment for joint pain.

Rectal prolapse surgery

Rectal prolapse surgery is done to repair protrusion of the rectal lining through the anus. Learn about techniques, risks and results.

Rh factor blood test

What's an Rh factor blood test? Understand this important test that's done during pregnancy.

Rheumatoid factor

Rheumatoid factor — This blood test can help diagnose autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome and lupus.

Rhinoplasty

Learn about the benefits, risks and what to expect during nose surgery.

Rhythm method for natural family planning

Want to know the best time of month to conceive or avoid pregnancy? The rhythm method is a natural form of family planning that can help. Learn the steps.

Robotic hysterectomy

Robotic hysterectomy is a minimally invasive surgery to remove the uterus.

Robotic myomectomy

Learn about this minimally invasive procedure to remove uterine fibroids that may reduce pain, blood loss and recovery time.

Robotic surgery

Robotic systems can help surgeons increase precision, flexibility and control for many procedures. Learn about the advantages and availability of robot-assisted surgery.

SPECT scan

SPECT scans use radioactive tracers and special cameras to create images of your internal organs. Find out what to expect during your SPECT.

SVT ablation

Discover how cold or heat energy is used to correct fast and erratic heartbeats, such as atrial tachycardia and AV node reentrant tachycardia.

Sclerotherapy

Learn what's involved in this procedure to treat varicose veins, including the risks and what improvements you can expect.

Sed rate (erythrocyte sedimentation rate)

Sed rate is a blood test that can reveal inflammatory activity in your body. It's often used to help diagnose conditions affecting your joints or muscles.

Sentinel node biopsy

Learn what to expect during this procedure to remove and analyze a limited number of lymph nodes to determine whether your cancer has spread.

Septoplasty

Find out how this nose surgery can straighten the bone and cartilage separating your nostrils. This opens up your nasal passages, making breathing easier.

Shoulder replacement surgery

This procedure replaces damaged areas of the shoulder joint with implants made of metal and plastic. It can sometimes be done as same-day surgery.

Skin biopsy

Learn when this test is helpful in diagnosing or treating skin conditions and what to expect during the procedure.

Sleeve gastrectomy

Learn about sleeve gastrectomy, a type of weight-loss surgery that involves removing part of the stomach to make it smaller.

Sperm donation

Get details on the steps involved — and what's required of you — if you decide to donate sperm and help another family conceive.

Spinal fusion

This procedure permanently connects two or more vertebrae in your spine. This eliminates motion between the bones and can reduce neck or back pain.

Spirometry

Learn more about this test that uses a special breathing tube to diagnose breathing problems, including asthma and COPD.

Splenectomy

The spleen helps you fight infection, but you can live without it if you have to. Learn about the risks and results of this surgery to remove the spleen.

Stereotactic body radiotherapy

Stereotactic body radiosurgery uses radiation beams to treat tumors in all parts of the body. Understand the benefits and when this incision-free procedure is used.

Stereotactic radiosurgery

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) uses radiation beams to treat tumors in all parts of the body. Learn what to expect before, during and after this incision-free procedure.

Stool DNA test

Learn about this noninvasive colon cancer screening test that can detect DNA changes in cells collected from a stool sample.

Stress test

This test provides important information about your heart health. Know how to prepare and what to expect.

Tattoo removal

Find out about tattoo removal options, including laser surgery, surgical removal and dermabrasion.

Telestroke (stroke telemedicine)

Telestroke or stroke telemedicine uses technology to provide expert stroke care in smaller communities.

Testicular exam

Examining your testicles regularly can help you notice changes when they occur and identify testicular problems.

Thyroidectomy

Learn about what to expect from a thyroidectomy — a procedure that involves removing all or part of your thyroid gland.

Tilt table test

Learn how this test may help you find the cause of unexplained episodes of fainting.

Tonsillectomy

Learn how to prepare for a tonsillectomy and what to expect from the surgery.

Top surgery for transgender men and nonbinary people

Understand how this procedure to remove chest tissue can help transgender men and nonbinary people transition physically to their self-affirmed gender.

Top surgery for transgender women and nonbinary people

Learn how this surgery can help transgender women and nonbinary people change their chest size and shape.

Tracheostomy

A surgically created hole in the front of the neck provides an air passage to help breathing when the usual route for breathing is blocked or reduced.

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)

This minimally invasive procedure to replace a narrowed aortic valve is an alternative to open-heart valve surgery. Learn about the benefits and risks of TAVR.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

This noninvasive intervention is effective in treating depression by using magnetic fields to stimulate nerve cells in the brain involved in mood control.

Transgender voice therapy and surgery

Learn how therapy and surgery can help people who are transgender achieve communication styles that match their gender identity.

Transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP)

Learn about this procedure for treating an enlarged prostate, including how it's done and possible risks and benefits.

Transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT)

Learn about this minimally invasive procedure for treating an enlarged prostate, including how it's done and possible risks and benefits.

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)

Learn about this procedure used to treat urinary problems caused by an enlarged prostate gland.

Tricuspid valve repair and tricuspid valve replacement

These heart surgeries treat tricuspid valve regurgitation and stenosis and Ebstein anomaly, a type of congenital heart defect. Learn how they're done.

Tubal ligation

Thinking of getting your tubes tied? Tubal ligation is a permanent form of contraception. Know the risks and what to expect.

Tummy tuck

Find out how this procedure can change the appearance of your abdomen, giving you a more toned silhouette.

Ultrasound

This imaging method uses sound waves to create pictures of the inside of your body. Learn how it works and how it’s used.

Upper endoscopy

In upper endoscopy, a tiny camera is used to visually examine your upper digestive system. Find out what to expect.

Urinalysis

This common lab test checks urine for signs of disease and for clues about overall health.

Urine cytology

A urine cytology test uses a sample of your urine to look for abnormal cells, which could indicate a urinary tract cancer.

Vacuum extraction

Vacuum extraction is sometimes recommended to help guide your baby out of the birth canal during childbirth. Find out what to expect from this procedure.

Vaginal hysterectomy

Vaginal hysterectomy is a procedure to remove the uterus through an incision in the vagina to treat certain gynecological conditions.

Vagus nerve stimulation

Learn more about this procedure that may be used to treat epilepsy and other neurological conditions when other treatments haven't worked.

Valvuloplasty

Find out more about this cardiac catheter procedure to repair a narrowed heart valve.

Vasectomy

Find out more about this procedure that provides nearly 100 percent effective male birth control by cutting the supply of sperm to semen.

Vasectomy reversal

Learn about this microsurgery procedure that can restore your fertility after a vasectomy.

Ventricular assist device (VAD)

Learn how this implanted device helps your heart pump and when you might need one.

Ventricular tachycardia ablation

Learn how heart doctors apply heat or cold energy from inside or outside the heart to treat very fast and erratic heartbeats.

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)

This minimally invasive surgical procedure is used to diagnose and treat problems in the chest, such as with the lungs, esophagus, thymus gland and heart.

Virtual colonoscopy

Unlike other colon cancer screening tests, this imaging test doesn't use a scope to examine your colon. Learn how it works and what to expect.

Whipple procedure

Learn about traditional and minimally invasive Whipple procedure and other advanced surgeries that help people with pancreatic cancer.

Wisdom tooth extraction

Wisdom tooth extraction — Overview covers treatment goals and complications of surgery for wisdom teeth removal.

Withdrawal method (coitus interruptus)

The withdrawal method — pulling the penis out of the vagina before ejaculation — isn't the most effective birth control. Learn about the pros and cons.

X-ray

This quick and simple imaging test can spot problems in areas such as your bones, teeth and chest. Learn more about this diagnostic test.

3D mammogram

Find out what to expect during a 3D mammogram to look for breast cancer. Learn how this newer test compares to a standard mammogram.