Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that can cause illnesses such as the common cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). In 2019, a new coronavirus was identified as the cause of a disease outbreak that originated in China.
The virus is now known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease it causes is called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic.
Public health groups, including the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and WHO, are monitoring the pandemic and posting updates on their websites. These groups have also issued recommendations for preventing and treating the illness.
Signs and symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may appear two to 14 days after exposure. This time after exposure and before having symptoms is called the incubation period. Common signs and symptoms can include:
Early symptoms of COVID-19 may include a loss of taste or smell.
Other symptoms can include:
This list is not all inclusive. Other less common symptoms have been reported, such as rash, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Children have similar symptoms to adults and generally have mild illness.
The severity of COVID-19 symptoms can range from very mild to severe. Some people may have only a few symptoms, and some people may have no symptoms at all. Some people may experience worsened symptoms, such as worsened shortness of breath and pneumonia, about a week after symptoms start.
People who are older have a higher risk of serious illness from COVID-19, and the risk increases with age. People who have existing chronic medical conditions also may have a higher risk of serious illness. Certain medical conditions that increase the risk of serious illness from COVID-19 include:
Other conditions may increase the risk of serious illness, such as:
This list is not all inclusive. Other underlying medical conditions may increase your risk of serious illness from COVID-19.
If you have COVID-19 symptoms or you've been in contact with someone diagnosed with COVID-19, contact your doctor or clinic right away for medical advice. Tell your health care team about your symptoms and possible exposure before you go to your appointment.
If you have emergency COVID-19 signs and symptoms, seek care immediately. Emergency signs and symptoms can include:
If you have signs or symptoms of COVID-19, contact your doctor or clinic for guidance. Let your doctor know if you have other chronic medical conditions, such as heart disease or lung disease. During the pandemic, it's important to make sure health care is available for those in greatest need.
Infection with the new coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
The virus that causes COVID-19 spreads easily among people, and more continues to be discovered over time about how it spreads. Data has shown that it spreads mainly from person to person among those in close contact (within about 6 feet, or 2 meters). The virus spreads by respiratory droplets released when someone with the virus coughs, sneezes, breathes, sings or talks. These droplets can be inhaled or land in the mouth, nose or eyes of a person nearby.
In some situations, the COVID-19 virus can spread by a person being exposed to small droplets or aerosols that stay in the air for several minutes or hours — called airborne transmission. It's not yet known how common it is for the virus to spread this way.
It can also spread if a person touches a surface or object with the virus on it and then touches his or her mouth, nose or eyes, although this isn't considered to be a main way it spreads.
Some reinfections of the virus that causes COVID-19 have happened, but these have been uncommon.
Risk factors for COVID-19 appear to include:
Although most people with COVID-19 have mild to moderate symptoms, the disease can cause severe medical complications and lead to death in some people. Older adults or people with existing chronic medical conditions are at greater risk of becoming seriously ill with COVID-19.
Complications can include:
Although there is no vaccine available to prevent COVID-19, you can take steps to reduce your risk of infection. WHO and CDC recommend following these precautions for avoiding exposure to the virus that causes COVID-19:
If you have a chronic medical condition and may have a higher risk of serious illness, check with your doctor about other ways to protect yourself.
If you're planning to travel, first check the CDC and WHO websites for updates and advice. Be prepared to wear a mask and use appropriate hand hygiene when in public. You may also want to talk with your doctor if you have health conditions that make you more susceptible to respiratory infections and complications.
If you develop symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or you've been exposed to the COVID-19 virus, contact your doctor. Also let your doctor know if you've had close contact with anyone who has been diagnosed with COVID-19.
Factors used to decide whether to test you for the virus that causes COVID-19 may differ depending on where you live. Depending on your location, you may need to be screened by your clinic to determine if testing is appropriate and available.
In the U.S., your doctor will determine whether to conduct tests for the virus that causes COVID-19 based on your signs and symptoms, as well as whether you have had close contact with someone diagnosed with COVID-19. Your doctor may also consider testing if you are at higher risk of serious illness or you are going to have a medical procedure.
To test for the COVID-19 virus, a health care provider takes a sample from the nose (nasopharyngeal swab) or throat (throat swab). The samples are then sent to a lab for testing. If you're coughing up sputum, that may be sent for testing. The U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized at-home tests for the COVID-19 virus. These are available only with a doctor's prescription.
Currently, only one medication has been approved to treat COVID-19. No cure is available for COVID-19. Antibiotics aren't effective against viral infections such as COVID-19. Researchers are testing a variety of possible treatments.
The FDA has approved the antiviral drug remdesivir (Veklury) to treat COVID-19 in hospitalized adults and children who are age 12 and older in the hospital. The FDA has granted an emergency use authorization for the rheumatoid arthritis drug baricitinib (Olumiant) to treat COVID-19 in some cases. Baricitinib is a pill that seems to work against COVID-19 by reducing inflammation and having antiviral activity. The FDA states baricitinib may be used in combination with remdesivir in people who are hospitalized with COVID-19 who are on mechanical ventilators or need supplemental oxygen.
Two monoclonal antibody medications have received emergency use authorization from the FDA. Monoclonal antibodies are proteins created in a lab that can help the immune system fight off viruses. One medication is called bamlanivimab, and the second medication is a combination of two antibodies called casirivimab and imdevimab. Both drugs are used to treat mild to moderate COVID-19 in people who have a higher risk of developing serious illness due to COVID-19. Treatment consists of a single intravenous infusion given in an outpatient setting. To be most effective, these medications need to be given soon after COVID-19 symptoms start and prior to hospitalization.
The U.S. National Institutes of Health recently recommended the corticosteroid dexamethasone for people hospitalized with severe COVID-19 who require supplemental oxygen or mechanical ventilation. Other corticosteroids, such as prednisone, methylprednisolone or hydrocortisone, may be used if dexamethasone isn't available.
The FDA has also granted emergency use authorization for convalescent plasma therapy to treat COVID-19. Convalescent plasma is blood donated by people who've recovered from COVID-19. It's used to treat people who are ill with COVID-19 in the hospital.
Supportive care is aimed at relieving symptoms and may include:
There is no evidence that ibuprofen or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) need to be avoided.
If you have mild symptoms, your doctor may recommend that you recover at home. He or she may give you special instructions to monitor your symptoms and to avoid spreading the illness to others. You'll likely be asked to isolate yourself as much as possible from family and pets while you're sick, wear a mask when you're around people and pets, and use a separate bedroom and bathroom.
Your doctor will likely recommend that you stay in home isolation for a period of time except to get medical care. Your doctor will likely follow up with you regularly. Follow guidelines from your doctor and local health department about when you can end home isolation.
If you're very ill, you may need to be treated in the hospital.
It's common to feel fearful and anxious during the COVID-19 pandemic. You're probably worried that you or those you love will get sick. You may be concerned about taking care of yourself or others who are ill.
During this time, remember to take care of yourself and manage your stress.
If you're ill with COVID-19, it's especially important to:
Having COVID-19 or caring for someone with the disease can cause stress and anxiety. If stress is affecting your daily life after several days, contact your doctor. He or she may suggest that you talk to a mental health professional.
During a pandemic, it's not always possible for everyone who is ill to see a doctor. You may start by seeing your primary care doctor or other health care provider. Or you may be referred immediately to a doctor trained in treating infectious diseases. If you think you have COVID-19, tell your doctor or clinic before going in. The doctor and medical team can then:
Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment.
When you make the appointment, ask if there's anything you need to do in advance. Make a list of:
Take a family member or friend along, if possible, to help you remember the information you're given. Avoid bringing more than one or two people. Check before you go to the appointment, as your hospital or clinic may have visitor restrictions.
Some basic questions to ask your doctor include:
Your doctor is likely to ask you several questions, such as: